The roof is one of the most important systems in the house. However, mistakes in the design and installation of such a system can lead to a significant reduction in its performance. For this reason, it is necessary to know what elements make up a roof and how to arrange it correctly depending on the type of roof and environmental conditions.
What is the roof structure?
In general, the arrangement of the roof is not a very complex system. However, each of its elements is of exceptional importance. The absence of at least one of the elements or its incorrect installation can make the entire roof structure not functional.
Thus, pitched roofs provide for the presence of a rafter system, to which other elements are attached in one way or another. The flat roof does not require a rafter system.
In addition, it is important which room the roof faces. If it is a cold attic, then the roofing may not contain insulation.
The design of the roof is as follows:
- Roof system. This design is a framework of a roof, other components fasten to it. The rafter system must be designed to withstand a sufficiently strong mechanical load associated with the weight of the roof itself, the weight of the snow cover in the winter, the effects of wind, and the load associated with the operation of the roof.
- Thermal insulation system. The roof insulation involves the use of materials that will prevent heat loss in the cold season. In addition, such insulation provides coolness in the room in the hot summer. As a rule, the main insulating materials for roof insulation are mineral wool or fiberglass-based insulation. In the case of a flat roof, a roof pie with insulation includes a layer of the same mineral wool or expanded polystyrene. Expanded clay and other materials are sometimes used.
- Vapor barrier system. A vapor barrier prevents water vapor from entering a pitched roof from a warm room and creating condensate there. Thus, the heater retains its thermal insulation properties, and the roof performs its functions perfectly. The vapor barrier material is attached to the inside of the rafters. At the same time, it is necessary to provide the maximum tightness of this covering. Especially in places adjacent to hatches, dormer windows, etc.
- Waterproofing system. Although modern roofing materials provide reliable protection against moisture during the rain, it is also necessary to protect the soft roof roofing pie from condensation that occurs on the reverse side of the roofing material. Modern waterproofing materials not only protect the insulation but also absorb some moisture. The mansard roof involves the use of membrane insulation materials. But the cold roof can be insulated with materials such as roofing felt or glassine.
- Roofing. Such a coating must be reliable and durable. In addition, you should pay attention to safety. That is environmental friendliness and non-flammability. Equally important are factors such as price and ease of system installation. Today on the market you can choose sheet roofing materials, namely: metal, corrugated board, rebate solutions, asbestos-cement slate. So are artificial solutions, namely: cement-sand tile, ceramic tile, and composite materials. A flat roof pie can include coatings such as rolled bituminous materials, polymer membrane materials, and a variety of roofing mastics.
It is only necessary to say that there should be free space between the roofing covering and a waterproofing layer. It provides ventilation and removal of moisture from condensate, which must drain into the drainage system. A properly constructed roof structure should last a long time without reducing its effectiveness.
What to keep in mind when installing a roof?
First of all, you should responsibly approach the choice of materials from which to install the roof. Based on the parameters of the external environment and the type of room over which the roof is arranged, it is necessary to choose the optimal set of materials for all types of insulation. Today there is a huge selection of different materials for every taste. However, you should always seek the advice of professionals who have sufficient experience and qualifications in this matter.
No less important is the technology of implementing a particular solution. In any case, it should be possible to ventilate the space between the insulation and the insulation layers.
Thus, the arrangement of a roof of any type should begin with the correct design and exact calculation of all necessary parameters of a future design.
Next, you should choose the most optimal materials to ensure the maximum efficiency of the result. But, of course, special attention should be paid to the quality of work when installing the roof.
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